SECURITY SECTOR REFORMS INFLUENCING TRANSFORMATION OF NATIONAL POLICE SERVICE, NAIROBI AND KIAMBU COUNTIES, KENYA
Muthondeki, David Kabera
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Globally, police are confronted with the ever-changing security scenario that demands for police reforms that enhances effective service delivery. The major police reform documents and Task Forces since 2000 and other studies provides for an ambitious set of reform processes aimed at addressing a long term negative perception of the police in Kenya. The National Police Service has been depicted as abusive, corrupt, and ineffective hence national yearning for police transformation. Instead decline in crime during the period covered with clamor for police reforms the crime has increased in kenya, most of which have not investigated on how SSR influence transformation of NPS. The general objective of this study was to investigate how Security Sector Reforms (police reforms) influences transformation of National Police Service in Kenya. The study was guided by the following specific objectives: to explore concept of Security Sector Reforms in the context of Kenya National Police Service, to assess influence of Security Sector Reforms on National Police Service transformation and to evaluate challenges entailed in Security Sector Reforms on the transformation of National Police Service (NPS) in Kenya. The study was informed by the following theories: Expectancy Theory by Vroom and Lewin‘s Theory of Change. This research was conducted using ex post facto design employing mixed method approach in data collection. The target population was law enforcement officers of National Police Service in Nairobi and Kiambu County and other security stakeholders. The sample size was 399 respondents. Nairobi was chosen because it houses many formations of the NPS and proximity to offices of commissions and civil societies and Kiambu because of community policing model at Kikuyu division. The study used probability and non- probability sampling methods. The purposive sampling was used to select the KPS Divisions and APS sub-counties and members of commissions, and directorates. The junior officers from KPS and APS were selected randomly from five sub-counties depending on crime rates and geographical areas. The main research instruments used were: Questionnaires, Interview Schedules, observation and Focus Groups. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics by use of SPSS software. Data was presented in the form of frequency distribution tables, graphs and pie charts. Qualitative. Data from open-ended questions, interview guide and focus group discussion used critical discourse analysis, data analysis spiral and narrative analysis. The study found out that most of the respondents interviewed were familiar with the term security reforms but superficial in terms of implementation. That police reforms have not been realized and police reforms face opposition ranging from organization inertia to individual inertia and were brought by lack training and inclusion of junior officers, lack of motivation, inconsistency in reward, promotion, poor housing and unfairness in training. The overall conclusion is that the NPS need an in-depth transformation for better service delivery and bring out confidence of the citizens. The study recommended that: police officers should be trained and this involves police reforms and transformation. The government should improve the welfare of police officers by paying them well. Further study should be done on the impact of leadership and management in police transformation and resource allocation through directorate of psychological counseling to deal with psychological challenges to ensure effective service dlivery.