Adsorption of Caffeine and Ciprofloxacin onto Pyrolitically Derived Water Hyacinth Biochar: Isothermal, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies
Lilechi, Danstone Baraza
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In this work, the adsorptive features of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) derived biochar for sequestration of ciprofloxacin and caffeine from aqueous solution is reported. The isothermal behaviour, adsorption kinetics, mechanisms and thermodynamic parameters were investigated in batch mode. Langmuir and Freundlich models described the equilibrium adsorption data with regression values > 0.9. The kineticsdata obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetic law while intraparticle pore diffusion was not the only rate controlling step. The computed thermodynamic parameters, namely change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG), change in enthalpy (ΔH) and change in entropy (ΔS) indicated that the adsorption processes were spontaneous and exothermic with less randomness. pH dependence studies depicted multi-mechanistic adsorption for both compounds and is hypothesized to involve hydrophobic interactions besides other non-coulombic interactions. The findings demonstrate that water hyacinth biochar presents an excellent low cost and environmentally benign adsorbent for mitigation of pharmaceuticals from water with a removal efficiency of above 60 % for caffeine and ciprofloxacin.
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